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Read the case study assessment information and answer the questions using 6th edition APA format.
1. Describe the normal physiological signs of aging associated with the musculoskeletal system when performing an assessment on the older adult (some are identified in this scenario).
2. What further questions would you ask the client in order to elicit more necessary information for the examination?
3. Provide at least two possible medical diagnosis and two nursing diagnosis (utilizing the PES format) for the client based on the findings.
4. What data, if any, would require a physician’s referral? Provide rationale.
Case StudyBertie Thomas is an 88-year-old client who reports to the medical clinic with a complaintof left hip pain following “slipping on a grape left on the floor of the produce department at the local grocery store.” Client’s medical history is insignificant except for automobile accident at the age of 39 with “whiplash” injury. It is noted on examination that she falls backward easily on the nudge test. She has a smooth stride with even weight bearing, coordinated and rhythmic arm swing, and a wide based gait. Her toes point outward. She is unable to stand on her toes or heels without losing her balance. She is unable to toe touch due to neck and back stiffness. The client has an exaggerated thoracic curve. Client has equal leg length, full range of motion of both legs against resistance, and full internal and external rotation of both hips. Hip flexion with knees straight and bent is normal. Knees are symmetric, with mild genu varum noted. There is some decreased muscle strength against resistance in the arms.

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